In an amazing turnaround over the last 20 years, scientists who previously thought brain structure was mostly permanent after childhood have changed their tune. Now it has been shown that brain structure is actually modified by new learning. The brain’s ability to change is referred to as neuroplasticity.
With this new information has come various technologies meant to help people reprogram their brain. You notice I said people. With animals, reprogramming seems to be mostly simple relearning. Repetition plays a part in this and brainwave entrainment can help. If you read the post on this site about calming a stressed animal, the Control Stress frequency causes the animal to relax. Repeat that relaxing experience a number of times with the stressor (for example a loud motor nearby) and the animal will likely learn to disregard the stressor to some degree.
People are a little different. They are not in touch consciously with all of the memory storage in their brain. This storage includes habits, concepts, emotions, beliefs and events.There is no awareness of time there. Play some music from years ago or smell a fragrance from years ago and chances are, memories of that time will be called forth as if it were today.
These stored memories are frequently referred to as your unconscious or subconscious mind. They frequently direct your actions without your conscious awareness. It is the goal of neural reprogramming to replace certain of those unconscious concepts or habits with concepts or habits chosen by your conscious mind. For example: you want to replace your concept of self with a more positive one so that you have more confidence. Or you want to stop a habit of procrastinating.
As with animals, brainwave entrainment with certain frequencies are often used to put the brain in a state more receptive to new learning. But neural reprogrammers often have additional tools such as hypnosis and subliminal suggestion, cognitive therapies and strategies.
You can think of neural reprogramming as modifying the settings and programs of the computer that is your brain. If you would like to make your life look more like your ideal kind of life, you look to the choices you have made and the habits, concepts, emotions or past experiences that likely influenced those choices. Then you replace those old settings and programs with new ones to enable the choices you want to make now.